Search for Deliverance

1492 - 1789

Jewish communities develop in the Ottoman Empire and Europe. Though faced with restrictions, communities of Europe and Eastern Europe maintain a thriving Jewish culture. New religious and social movements include Messianism, Hasidism, and the Enlightenment. Jews settle in the New World. 

1492 Christian Spain Unified; Columbus Reaches America

1497 Forced Baptism of Jews in Portugal

1500 Rise of Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Muslim Empire spreads across Anatolia, the Middle East, the Near East, North Africa, and into Europe. Jewish communities, including those in Israel, develop due to religious toleration and economic opportunity. 

1516 First Jewish Ghetto Established in Venice

Jews are forced to live in a separate quarter of the city, "the ghetto," enclosed by walls and gates. 

1517 Martin Luther Begins Reformation

1530 Safed as Center of Jewish Mysticism

1555 End of Religious Wars in Germany; Establishment of Ghetto in Rome

1563 Height of Counter Reformation that Establishes Protestantism

1567 Joseph Caro and the Shulhan Arukh

Joseph Caro (1488-1575) writes the legal text the Shulhan Arukh, eventually accepted as the authorative Jewish legal code. 

1580 Dutch War of Independence; Council of the Four Lands in Poland

The Council of the Four Lands are the central institutions of Jewish self-government in Poland and Luthuania. 

1590 Conversos Settle in the Netherlands

Conversos from Spain and Portugal settle in Amsterdam where they enjoy religious freedom and are free to practice professions. 

1618 Start of 30 Years War

1642 Start of English Civil Wars

1648 Massacres of Jews in Poland

Chmielnicki (1595-1657) leads Cossack and peasant uprising against Polish rule in Ukraine. Hundreds of Jewish communities are destroyed. 

1654 Jews Arrive in New Amsterdam

Jews from Recife, Brazil seek refuge from the Inquisition and settle in New Amsterdam (later New York). 

1655 Jews Readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell

1656 Spinoza excommunicated

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher, is excommunicated from the Jewish community for heretical opinions. 

1665 - 1667 Shabbetai Zevi, False Messiah

Shabbetai Zevi (1626-1676) proclaims himself the Messiah. Messianic movement spreads internationally. 

1690 John Locke’s Two Treatises on Civil Government

1715 Death of Louis XIV, "Sun King" of France (1638-1715)

1730 First Synagogue in North America Dedicated by Congregation Shearith               Israel, New York

1760 The Baal Shem Tov, Founder of Hasidism

Israel Baal Shem Tov (1700-1760) founds Hasidism, known for its ecstatic worship, group cohesion, and charismatic leadership. 

1770 Start of Haskalah, the Jewish Enlightenment Movement

The Haskalah, the Jewish Enlightenment, emphasizes participation in modern European society and leads to social and educational reforms. 

1772  First Partition of Poland 

1776 American Revolution, Religious Freedom Guaranteed

1778 Deaths of Voltaire (1694-1778), Rousseau (1712-1778)

1786 Moses Mendelssohn

Death of Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786), philosopher of Jewish Enlightenment and spiritual leader of German Jewry. 


Roads from the Ghetos

1789 -1925

The revolutions across Europe grant Jews civil rigths and change the ways in which they are viewed in society. The European Jewish community grows even as many Jews migrate to America and Palestine. Anti-semitism contributes to the founding of the Zionist movement. 

1789 French Revolution Begins; U.S. Constitution Ratified

1791 Jews in France Granted Citizenship; Pale of Settlement Established in                  Russia

Civil rights obtained by Jews in France begins process of Jewish Emancipation and political equality across Europe. Jews of Russia are confined to live within Pale of Settlement territory. 

1804 Napoleon Proclaimed Emperor of France

1812 War of 1812; Jews in Prussia Granted Citizenship, Social Restrictions                   Remain

1815 Napoleon Defeated at Waterloo; Congress of Vienna

1820 Start of Reform Movement

Originating in Germany, the Reform movement conceives of Judaism as an evolving religion. Eliminating many traditional practices and beliefs, Reform Judaism grows in Europe and America. 

1830 Start of Major Jewish Immigration from Germany to United States

1830 Height of Industrial Revolution 

1840 Damascus Affair

Notorius blood libel against Jews in Damascus. 

1848 Revolutions Across Europe; Communist Manifesto Published 

1860 Mishkenot Sha'ananim

First modern Jewish neighborhood in Israel outside the walls of Jerusalem. 

1861 Kingdom of Italy Proclaimed; American Civil War (1861-1865) 

1870 Ghettos Abolished in Italy

1871 Franco-Prussian War; New German Constitution Grants Jews Full  Rights 

1877 U.S. State New Hampshire Allows non-Christians to Hold Political Office 

1881 Start of Major Jewish Immigration from Eastern Europe to United States

Waves of pogroms in Russia lead to mass Jewish immigration to United States. 

1882 Start of First Aliyah

Aliyah, "ascension" in Hebrew, refers to immigration to Israel and is a major ideal of Zionism. The First Aliyah was mainly Jews from the Russian empire and Romania. 

1887 Jewish Theological Seminary

The Conservative movement establishes its own rabbinical school, the Jewish Theological Seminary, in New York. 

1894 Dreyfus Affair

Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), Jewish officer in the French army, is accused of treason. His court-martial, conviction, and eventual acquittal develops into a significant political event with repercussions throughout the French and Jewish world. 

1896 Herzl Publishes "The Jewish State"

Influenced by the Dreyfus Affair, Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) publishes "The Jewish State" and becomes the founder of political Zionism, the movement for the return of Jews to Israel. 

1897 First Zionist Congress; Jewish Labor Bund founded

The First Zionist Congress is convened by Herzl in Basel, Switzerland, where the World Zionist Organization is created. The Bund, the Jewish socialist party, is founded in Russia. 

1903 Kishinev Pogroms

1905 "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"

The anti-Semitic treatise "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" is published and asserts an international Jewish conspiracy. 

1909 Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv, the first modern, all-Jewish, Hebrew speaking city is founded in Israel.

1914 World War I (1914- 1918)

1917 Weimar Republic; Russian Revolution; British Capture Palestine from                   Turkish Empire, Balfour Declaration

With the Russian Revolution, the Jews of Russia are granted civil equality. The Balfour Declaration is the British declaration of support for a Jewish national home in Palestine. 

1919 Peace Treaty of Versailles 

1924 U.S. Immigration Quotas

By the time free immigration is ended in the U.S., approximately 2,300,000 Jews have settled in America, creating a vibrant Jewish and Yiddish culture.

1925 Inflation in Germany 

Into the Future

1925 - 2000

The 20th century brings great changes for world and the Jewish people. There is significant Jewish migration to America and to settle the land of Palestine. European Jewry is almost completely destroyed, and in the wake of the Holocaust a Jewish state is born. Jews across in Israel and across the world continue to shape Jewish identity.

1929 U.S. Stock Market Crash, Beginning of the Depression

1933 Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany

1935 Nuremberg Laws

The Nuremberg Laws revoke Jewish rights in Germany on the basis of race.

1936 Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

1936 - 1937 Stalin Purges

Stalin attempts to destroy Jewish culture in Russia; Jewish schools, theaters, and publications are closed.

1938  German Annexation of Austria; Kristallnacht

Jewish property and synagogues in Germany and Austria are attacked on November 9th. This becomes known as Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass.

1939 Germany Occupies Czechoslovakia, Invades Poland; Outbreak of World              War II; British White Paper

Under Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Nazi Germany grows and Jews face increasing persecution. The British government issues the White Paper, a statement of policy restricting Jewish immigrantion to Palestine.

1940 Ghettos Established

Expelled from schools and professions, Jews are forced by Nazis to leave their homes and move into ghettos, cut off from the world and forced into labor.

1941 Pearl Harbor, U.S. Enters World War II; German Invasion of  Russia; Mass            Murder of Jews in the Holocaust

Mass murder of Jews is implemented in Germany and Nazi-occupied areas. Millions of Jews are shot, gassed, and forced into slave labor in an effort to rid Europe of "the Jewish problem."

1942 The Final Solution

Nazi officials implement the Final Solution, the plan for the extermination of the Jews. An assembly-line method of murder is devised through transports, death camps, and gas chambers.

1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Facing deportation to concentration camps, Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto initiate an armed uprising against the Nazis. After 28 days of fighting, the Ghetto is destroyed and the remaining Jews deported. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising inspires similar resistance in other ghettos.

1944 Allied Invasion of Normandy; Jewish Brigade Formed as Part of                              British Forces

1945 Atomic Bombs Dropped on Japan; End of World War II;                                              Establishment of Communist Regimes

By the end of WWII, an estimated six million Jews have been murdered and Jewish communities across Eastern and Central Europe destroyed.

1947 UN Votes for Partition of Palestine and Jewish State

The UN votes in favor of the partition of Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state.

1948 State of Israel; Communist Anti-Jewish Campaign

With the Declaration of Independence, the State of Israel is established on May 14th. The next day Arab armies attack, and the War of Independence lasts a year. In the Soviet Union Stalin implements an anti-Jewish campaign (1948-1953).

1950 Korean War (1950-1953); Law of Return

Israel parliament passes the Law of Return, declaring that every Jew has the right to settle in Israel and become a citizen.

1956 Sinai Campaign

The Sinai Campaign, a war between Israel and Egypt, is launched by Israel in the wake of mounting Egyptian aggression.

1960 Jewish Reconstructionist Movement Founded

1961 Eichmann Trial

Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962), Nazi official and S.S. officer, is charged with crimes against the Jewish people and humanity and is brought to trial in Israel. He is found guilty and hanged, the only death sentence imposed by an Israeli court. The trial causes great interest in Israel and across the world.

1963  John F. Kennedy Assassinated

1965 Height of Vietnam War (1961-1970)

1967 Six-Day War

War between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq that lasts from June 5-10th. Israel reunites Jerusalem (split since the War of Independence) and annexes the Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. Jews around the world take pride in Israel's swift victory, and newly occupied territories pose challenges for Israeli society.

1968 Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia

1973 Arab Oil Embargo; Yom Kippur War

Syria and Egypt attack Israel on Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement. The Yom Kippur War has major political and social effects on Israel and the Middle East.

1974 Watergate, Nixon Resigns

1979 Peace Treaty Between Israel and Egypt

Camp David agreements lead to peace treaty signed between Israeli Prime Minister Menahem Begin (1913-1992) and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (1918-1981).

1982 Beginning of the Lebanon War

Israel begins Lebanon War to combat terrorists in Lebonan. The war draws out and provokes intense debate within Israel.

1987 Intifada

The Intifada, the national uprising of Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, begins. Political consensus inside Israel is shattered.

1989 Collapse of Soviet Union, Start of Major Jewish Migration to                    Israel

1993 Oslo Accords; Peace Process Begins Between Israel and                      Palestinian Authority

1995 Rabin Assassinated

Israeli Prime Minister Yizhak Rabin (1922-1995) is killed by a young Jewish man at a peace rally in Tel Aviv. The assasination shocks Israel and effects the Peace Process.

1996 Peace Process Stalls, Terrorist Attacks in Israel

2000 Intifada 2

The second Palestinian uprising against Israel begins in October. The Peace Process struggles to continue.


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JHISTOTY OF THE JEWS  AND CIVILIZATION